Top 5 Programming Languages for Backend Development

12 Nov 2020

Frontend and Backend development are two sides of the same coin. The front-end is focused on the visual appearance of your application, system, or website while the backend concentrates on the server-side of your application.

Backend programming defines the actual functionality of your application and it consists of three main parts:

  • Server
  • Application
  • Database
Back-end consists of
Source: Guru99

Backend development provides a path for an application to communicate with the database servers in order to retrieve data. These servers and databases are not present on the front end but they quietly perform all the actions necessary to keep everything functional.

Backend coding Information
Source: Wikipedia

There are a number of programming languages used for backend development depending on the system and if someone wants to be a backend developer then they must know at least one of these key languages:

1. PHP

PHP is the most popular web backend development language created by Rasmus Lerdorf in 1994. Many big companies use PHP for backend programming, including:

  • Facebook
  • WordPress
  • Hootsuite
  • Mint
  • Viber

This server-side language is dominant on the worldwide web. Contributors and an open-source community keep the language maintained and updated for multiple platforms. PHP uses are not just limited to the world wide web as it seamlessly works for cross-platform applications as well.

PHP’s integration is possible with a range of database systems such as:

  • Oracle
  • MySQL
  • Sybase
  • PostgreSQL
  • Informix
  • Microsoft SQL Server

The language also holds extensive libraries to customize different modules. Moreover, PHP is excellent for dynamic content and its efficient error reporting system makes debugging a cinch. There are some worthy PHP courses available to set on your backend development journey.

2. Java

Java is an object-oriented, general-purpose programming language used by many companies like Airbnb, Uber, Pinterest, and LinkedIn for their backend programming. It is reliable for this type of programming because it supports principles like:

  • Data Abstraction
  • Polymorphism
  • Overloading
  • Encapsulation
  • Inheritance

These features make Java more compatible for use in large scale backend systems. There are a number of other Java applications that make it a superior programming language on many grounds.

A Java Virtual Machine (JVM) engine is a runtime environment that executes Java codes and applications. The language is highly scalable and, like PHP, can be used for cross-platform development.

The powerful memory management is another factor that makes Java reliable for backend systems. If you want to pursue your career as a back-end Java developer, you should explore these best Java courses to start you off.

3. Ruby on Rails

Ruby on Rails (RoR) is a web application framework that is based upon Ruby programming language. RoR is a platform-independent language just like the previous two languages and its programs can run on platforms:

  • Windows
  • Unix
  • Mac

The Principle of Least Astonishment (POLA) is used in RoR for clearing the programmer’s confusions in diverse areas. There are various applications for RoR including data analytics, proof of concepts and prototyping, etc.

Ruby on Rails provides reliability in backend development as it has amazing capabilities to automate repetitive tasks, create prototypes, build web applications and games, etc. Various companies rely on RoR for their backend systems, including:

  • Airbnb
  • Codecademy
  • TaskRabbit
  • Kickstarter

It is a general-purpose language just like Python but the customization options in Ruby are more reliable with an easier syntax. If you want to make a fresh start as a backend programmer, grab your best Ruby course, and start practicing today.

4. Python

Python has a variety of applications and it can be used for both frontend and backend programming, although it leans more towards server-side use which makes it an ideal option for backend developers.

The language has a number of frameworks used for diverse purposes. Django and Flask are two of the most popular Python frameworks for backend web development. Python also has a range of libraries that provide additional support to backend programmers.

Python is a multi-purpose language, so it’s always a good idea to learn the basics by choosing one of the best Python courses. The syntax of Python is generally more straightforward than other programming languages. Ruby on Rails, Python and Java have a lot in common because these languages are:

  • object-oriented
  • open-source
  • dynamic

If you are a newbie programmer, then Python is probably more preferable to learn due to its simpler syntax and logic.

5. JavaScript

There are over 11 million Javascript developers which indicates the reliability and popularity of this language. JavaScript is considered excellent for both frontend and backend development.

While Ruby on Rails is excellent for the backend, if we need something more advanced and functional then the Node.js runtime environment could be your optimum choice for server-side applications. There are various other applications of JavaScript in areas such as:

  • 3D games
  • robots
  • IoT devices

The demand for backend servers is constantly rising up and if a unique I/O scalable model is required, this requirement can be fulfilled by Node.js. You can learn the basics by choosing your best JavaScript course to start your career professionally.

Once the basic concepts are mastered, you can easily move to the Node.js framework to continue your training. JavaScript is indeed a great option to take for a fresh start as a complete beginner in web backend development.

Wrapping It Up

The languages described above are all great for backend development but your choice totally depends on your goals.

If you want to be a website backend developer then languages like JavaScript and PHP might be more up your alley because they are already dominant on the worldwide web. JavaScript even allows you to play with the frontend which makes it even more powerful.

Java is another great example of a multi-purpose cross-platform language. You could choose Java if you do not want to limit yourself to backend programming. However, Java is a little complex for the total beginner, while Python is much simpler for a newbie.

You can also unlock more options by learning from the best backend development courses that will guide you from a basic to an advanced level.

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